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The Correspondance of The Trinity to Yahweh and Lord

The Old Testament name Yahweh (LORD) can either apply to God in totality, or the Father.

The New Testament title Lord can apply to either God in totality, the Father, the Son, or (although only indirectly) the Spirit.

Who is Yahweh?

The Hebrew name for God occurs only in the Old Testament, where only hints of the Trinity are present. However, since Father, Son and Spirit are not identical, it is possible to compare each of them to Yahweh to see to whom that name corresponds.

Firstly, Yahweh is creator:

When the LORD God made the earth and the heavens...

Genesis 2:4

All three of the Trinity are involved in creation, but the ultimate source is the Father.

Next, Yahweh has complete self-existence - He is who He is:

God replied to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM. Say this to the people of Israel: I AM has sent me to you."

Exodus 3:14

This would seem to correspond either to God in totality, or just to the Father, since both the Son and the Spirit originate with the Father.

Finally, Yahweh has complete self-determination - He does whatever He pleases:

The LORD does whatever pleases him throughout all heaven and earth, and on the seas and in their depths.

Psalm 135:6

Again, this would seem to correspond either to God in totality, or just to the Father, since the Son does what pleases the Father:

"For I always do what pleases him."

John 8:29

and the Spirit is sent from the Father by the Son:

"When the Counsellor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me."

John 15:26

Hence it appears that Yahweh corresponds either to God in totality, or just the Father; but not uniquely to either the Son or the Spirit.

Who is Lord?

In the Old Testament, Yahweh is Lord:

But Abram said, "O Sovereign LORD (literally lord Yahweh), what can you give me..."

Genesis 15:2

In the Septuagint, both Yahweh and Adonai (Hebrew for Lord) are translated as kyrios (Greek for Lord).

In the New Testament, Lord is applied to the Father:

At that time Jesus prayed this prayer: "O Father, Lord of heaven and earth..."

Matthew 11:25

With the tongue we praise our Lord and Father...

James 3:9

and to the Son:

Today in the town of David a Saviour has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord.

Luke 2:11

So Ananias went and found Saul. He laid his hands on him and said, "Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus, who appeared to you on the road, has sent me so that you might regain your sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit."

Acts 9:17

This is the message of Good News for the people of Israel - that there is peace with God through Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all.

Acts 10:36

reflecting his delegated authority:

Jesus came and told his disciples, "I have been given all authority in heaven and on earth."

Matthew 28:18

However, despite the Nicene creed, there is no biblical reference to the Spirit being Lord - except in the sense of being one essence, e.g.

Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. And we, who with unveiled faces all reflect the Lord's glory, are being transformed into his likeness with ever-increasing glory, which comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.

2 Corinthians 3:17-18

In fact, where Jesus and the Spirit occur together, it is always Jesus who is Lord:

So Ananias went and found Saul. He laid his hands on him and said, "Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus, who appeared to you on the road, has sent me so that you might regain your sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit."

Acts 9:17

I urge you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit, to join me in my struggle by praying to God for me.

Romans 15:30

But you were cleansed; you were made holy; you were made right with God by calling on the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.

1 Corinthians 6:11

So I want you to know that no one speaking by the Spirit of God will curse Jesus, and no one can say Jesus is Lord, except by the Holy Spirit.

1 Corinthians 12:3

May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.

2 Corinthians 13:14

I keep asking that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the glorious Father, may give you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, so that you may know him better.

Ephesians 1:17

The lordship of the Spirit is indirect - if we receive the One sent, we receive the one who sent him:

"Anyone who receives you receives me, and anyone who receives me receives the Father who sent me."

Matthew 10:40

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